Artificial Insemination Programmes

Sex-sorted semen to ensure 90% female calves, more milk in Maharashtra

Updated Action Plan on Implementation of Nationwide Artificial Insemination Programme Phase III (NAIP III) Pdf icon (1.52 MB)

Artificial insemination (A.I.) is deposition of semen into the female genital tract by means of instruments.


There are several advantages by artificial insemination over natural mating or servicing.

  • There is no need of maintenance of breeding bull for a herd; hence the cost of maintenance of breeding bull is saved.
  • It prevents the spread of certain diseases and sterility due to genital diseases.
  • Eg: contagious abortion,  vibriosis.
  • By regular examination of semen after collection and frequent checking on fertility make early detection of interior males and better breeding efficiency is ensured.
  • The progeny testing can be done at an early age.
  • The semen of a desired size can be used even after the death of that particular sire.
  • The semen collected can be taken to the urban areas or rural areas for insemination.
  • 7 It makes possible the mating of animals with great differences in size without injury to either of the animal.
  • It is helpful to inseminate the animals that are refuse to stands or accept the male at the time of oestrum.
  • It helps in maintaining the accurate breeding and cawing records.
  • It increases the rate of conception.
  • It helps in better record keeping.
  • Old, heavy and injured sires can be used.

Disadvantages of A.I:

  • Requires well-trained operations and special equipment.
  • Requires more time than natural services.
  • Necessitates the knowledge of the structure and function of reproduction on the part of operator.
  • Improper cleaning of instruments and in sanitary conditions may lead to lower fertility.
  • If the bull is not properly tested, the spreading of genital diseases will be increased.
  • Market for bulls will be reduced, while that for superior bull is increased.


Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM) has been launched in December 2014 for development and conservation of indigenous breeds through selective breeding in the breeding tract and genetic upgradation of nondescript bovine population. The scheme comprises of two components namely National Programme for Bovine Breeding (NPBB) and National Mission on Bovine Productivity (NMBP).

Objectives of RGM :

➢ Development and conservation of indigenous breeds;
➢ Breed improvement programme for indigenous breeds so as to improve the genetic makeup and increase the stock;
➢ Enhancing milk production and productivity of bovine population by increasing disease free high genetic merit female population and check on spread of diseases ;
➢ Upgrading nondescript cattle using elite indigenous breeds like Gir, Sahiwal, Rathi, Deoni, Tharparkar, Red Sindhi ;
➢ Distribution of disease free high genetic merit bulls for natural service;
➢ To bring all breedable females under organised breeding through AI or natural service using germplasm of high genetic merits;
➢ To arrange quality Artificial Insemination (AI) services at farmers’ doorstep;
➢ To create e-market portal for bovine germplasm for connecting breeders and farmers;
➢ To increase trade of livestock and livestock products by meeting out sanitary and phyto-sanitary (SPS) issues;
➢ To select breeding bulls of high genetic merit at a young age through application of genomics.